Testosterone is that vital, mysterious hormone most people don’t fully understand and rarely discuss in a serious context. Sure, this hormone is most often understood in the context of 1990s sitcoms to poke fun at a man’s fluffed-up ego, occasional aggression, and sexual appetite. However, these jokes become more and more common as men age, faced with the seemingly inevitable drop from the testosterone cliff with each passing year.
It’s not a joke or a “Midlife Crisis,” and it’s certainly not an unavoidable part of aging: It’s low testosterone (Low-T). While it might be common as men get older, it’s certainly not normal. In fact, low testosterone can affect men of all ages and in all phases of life. This article explores The Wellness Way approach to alleviating the physical, mental, and emotional struggles of low testosterone levels in men. Balancing hormones can significantly improve a man’s quality of life and feelings of self-worth while potentially addressing other symptoms along the way.
What is Testosterone, and What Does it Do?
Although testosterone is a hormone present in both men and women, it’s a much more vital part of a man’s physical, mental, and emotional health. Testosterone is typically recognized as the main androgen (sex hormone) responsible for the physical characteristics of men. Males with healthy levels of testosterone usually have the following specific mental and physical characteristics:
- Facial and body hair
- Increased muscle mass
- Bone density
- Deeper tone of voice
- The “Adam’s apple”
- Higher self-esteem and self-confidence
- Increased sexual libido
- Metabolism regulation
- Red blood cell regulation
- Sperm production
Essentially, testosterone plays a vital role in a man’s sense of wellbeing and overall quality of life.  While people often only associate testosterone with the testicles, they aren’t the only organs involved. The pituitary gland and the liver play major roles in testosterone production. In fact, testosterone is essential for a boy’s development into a man during puberty through the pituitary gland’s release of luteinizing hormone (LH). When released, LH travels through the bloodstream to cells within the testicles to stimulate testosterone production.
The second necessary element of testosterone production is low-density lipoproteins (LDL), produced by the liver. LDL is a type of lipoprotein that carries cholesterol and is a necessary part of healthy hormone balance. The brain and the liver work together to produce and convert these valuable hormones, and the liver carries the extra burden of supporting a healthy balance of sex hormones in men.
If LH is out of balance, testosterone will be imbalanced as well. This hormone imbalance can come from a myriad of factors, which may be traced all the way back to puberty, childhood, or even time spent in the womb.
What is Low Testosterone (Low-T)?
Mount Sinai Hospital defines a normal range of testosterone in males as anywhere between 300 to 1,000 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL).  If a man’s total testosterone results fall below 300 ng/dL, he is then diagnosed with “hypogonadism” or low testosterone.  However, Dr. Patrick Flynn recommends a male testosterone level of 600 ng/dL or greater for the most long-term health benefits and the greatest impact on a man’s energy and motivation.
Symptoms of Low-T
In males, low testosterone (Low-T), or hypogonadism, often leads to the following symptoms:
- Decreased sex drive (low libido)
- Erectile Dysfunction (ED) or impotence
- Enlarged breasts (Gynecomastia)
- Lowered sperm count
- Sleep Problems, such as insomnia
- Mood swings
- Loss of facial or body hair
- Lack of motivation
- Decreased sense of self-worth
There are several factors unrelated to a man’s age or the inevitability of getting older (or wiser, for that manner) that are associated with low testosterone (Low-T). Just a few of these are increased body fat/BMI, diabetes, and poor nutrition habits.
Given the complexity of hormones, proteins, genetics, childhood development, and other variables, detailed lab testing throughout adolescence and adulthood is a necessary part of establishing and maintaining healthy testosterone levels.
How is Low-T Diagnosed?
The mainstream medical system typically diagnoses low testosterone levels through one or more of the following:
- Medical History and Physical Examination: Healthcare practitioners will conduct a physical exam of a man’s muscle mass, pubic hair, and testicle size to determine whether a man’s sexual development is consistent with his age. 
- Blood Tests: To most effectively measure the levels of both attached testosterone (bound to proteins in the blood called sex hormone binding globulin, or SHBG) as well as free testosterone (testosterone not bound to blood proteins), a clinical testosterone test is the most reliable option. A lab will generally take a blood sample between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m., when testosterone levels are at their highest. 
- Saliva or Urine Tests: Some saliva or urine-based tests can be conducted at home and sent to a laboratory for analysis. Those results are often forwarded to a primary care doctor for a patient’s medical file and used to refer the patient to a specialist if needed. Even if lab results are within a healthy range, discussing these results with a practitioner is still recommended.
Many of these tests vary in accuracy compared to the more consistent, less variable results of a serum (blood) test.  Therefore, a clinical testosterone test is the most reliable and comprehensive method for measuring testosterone levels compared to current options for at-home saliva or urine-based testosterone testing kits.
Mainstream Medicine’s Approach to Low-T
When it comes to low testosterone levels in men, mainstream healthcare practitioners are primarily concerned with ruling out cancer, injury to the area, and other chronic diseases that could be contributing to the decreased levels. Depending on the patient’s age and health history, practitioners will likely attribute the testosterone decline to the inevitable process of aging.
To combat the negative effects of testosterone deficiency on bone and muscle mass, mood, sexual function, and libido, many doctors will recommend a combination of lifestyle changes and Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) to increase testosterone and reduce symptoms.
Medications for Low-T
Medication-wise, mainstream doctors will typically prescribe Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT), which is a synthetically derived version of testosterone. Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) can be administered through several methods, including:
- Intramuscular Injections: The most common form of TRT, consisting of Testosterone Enanthate (Delatestryl or Xyosted), Testosterone Cypionate (Depo-Testosterone), and Testosterone Undecanoate (Andriol, Aveed), given weekly or every two weeks. 
- Transdermal (topical) gels and patches: The most consistent dose of TRT administration, consisting of alcohol-based bioidentical testosterone gels (AndroGel, Axiron) or a testosterone patch (Androderm) applied nightly.
- Oral Capsules: The safest TRT administration for liver function, consisting of testosterone undecanoate capsules (Jatenzo, Kyzatrex).
- Subdermal (beneath the skin) Implants: The most consistent and convenient form of TRT for long-term benefits, consisting of testosterone pellets (Testopel).
- Nasal Formulations: The most rapid form of raising testosterone levels, consisting of nasal absorption through a gel-filled pump (Natesto).
These methods of testosterone replacement may alleviate some of the debilitating effects of low testosterone by improving bone-mineral density, increasing lean body mass, and improving sexual function and libido by quickly increasing testosterone levels. However, they all have risks of short and long-term side effects, including infertility blood clots, and cancer. 
Furthermore, clinical trials from the University of Florence suggest that Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) “…improves erectile dysfunction only in men with ED and overt hypogonadism. Similarly, impaired sexual desire can result from a wide range of organic, relational and psychological factors, although it is recognized as one of the most specific symptoms of borderline hypogonadism.” In other words, TRT may not even work for most men. This and many other reasons cause many men to seek out natural and alternative ways to increase testosterone safely. 
The Fireman vs. The Carpenter in Healthcare
At The Wellness Way, we often discuss the mainstream medical perspective of healthcare versus our own perspective, referring to these methods as the “fireman approach” versus the “carpenter approach.”
Mainstream “fireman” doctors have two tools (treatment options) to take care of people during a fire-related emergency: an axe and a hose. The axe represents the removal of substance during a surgical procedure. The hose represents the use of medications to extinguish the “flames”: inflammation, pain, and other symptoms. Often, men don’t seek help until the physical symptoms worsen and affect their overall quality of life, requiring the intervention of the “fireman” approach (Testosterone Replacement Therapies, or TRT).
However, The Wellness Way doctors are more like carpenters: They assess the current state of the body with testing and then create a personalized plan to rebuild using lifestyle changes as well as nutrients from foods and supplements. Sunshine, rest, and positive relationships are common natural therapies that support healing.
The “carpenter” method to healthcare for low testosterone considers the whole “house” (a man’s body) as individual “rooms” (systems within the body) that contribute to the functionality and stability of a man’s “house.” This approach asks questions that extend beyond the symptoms, addressing each “room” of the house to determine contributing factors to lowered testosterone.
Dr. Soum Lokeshwar, urology resident at Yale School of Medicine, utilizes this “carpenter” approach to low testosterone: He suggests that total testosterone levels are declining in young adult men. Dr. Lokeshwar further explains that although testosterone deficiency was mostly attributed to the inevitability of aging in the past, this deficiency now occurs in 10%-40% of men and 20% of young men between the ages of 15 and 39. Testosterone levels are declining in men of all ages, and specifically in younger men. Overall, four out of ten men currently struggle with Low-T, and testosterone levels are lower than they were in young men 25 years ago. 
It’s not a natural part of aging, but a health problem that requires detailed lab tests and the “carpenter” approach to addressing the hormone imbalance. In fact, the Director of Male Infertility and Men’s Health at the Johns Hopkins Brady Urological Institute reinforces this “carpenter” approach to treating low testosterone levels: “It doesn’t help that many have seen advertisements for testosterone-boosting supplements promising to cure all—except the underlying cause. Men think it’s just a sex drive thing, but a lot of what we see is related to other common chronic conditions. Treating that one symptom without finding out the whole story would not be a good idea.” 
While many of the things listed below are considered “complementary medicine” or even “alternative medicine,” scientific research supports their effectiveness in healing.
What Causes Low-T? Traumas, Toxins, and Thoughts
At The Wellness Way, we think differently!
Many healthcare professionals label testosterone decline as a common side-effect of getting older. But remember, common is not necessarily normal.
This generalization ignores an entire series of cause-and-effect processes in a man’s body, mind, and life that could contribute to this decline in testosterone.
Unfortunately, most men will ignore the psychological signals that their testosterone is falling below a healthy level and will only seek medical help if they start having physical signs. It’s important to note that men will often go through more mental changes than physical changes when their testosterone level decreases. In general, men tend to dismiss their mental or emotional symptoms rather than seek help for the ongoing patterns in their mood and thoughts.
A common feature of low testosterone is estrogen dominance, or more specifically, the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. Estrogen dominance and low testosterone come from varying combinations of traumas, toxins, and thoughts.
Traumas (Physical Stressors)
Traumas or physical stressors can be acute (like a car accident) or chronic (like being in a physically abusive relationship). Examples of traumas that could contribute to a man’s estrogen dominance and lowered levels of testosterone include the following:
- Sexual assault/rape
- Manmade tragedies, such as a shooting or plane crash
- Car accidents – injury to the groin
- Chronic illness or infection
- Military combat and injury – Or other factors contributing to PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder)
These physical traumas may set off a state of chronic stress within the body. The result may be an interruption in the brain’s production of LH (luteinizing hormone), and thus a conversion of testosterone to female-dominated hormones such as estradiol.
Toxins (Biochemical Stressors)
Toxins are biochemical stressors in the body. Examples of toxins that could contribute to low testosterone include:
- Medications – Certain pharmaceutical drugs, including antidepressant medications and certain androgens for athletic or performance enhancement, can lead to too much estrogen in the system by interrupting pathways crucial to testosterone production, contributing to a lowered libido in males. 
- Sugar – Excessive sugar consumption can lead to insulin resistance. When the body becomes resistant to insulin, it has trouble regulating blood sugar levels, which can result in weight gain and increased body fat. Fat cells produce estrogen, contributing to estrogen dominance and thus, a lowered testosterone level. 
- Endocrine-disrupting chemicals – Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are commonly used in plastics, personal care products, fragrances, and household items. They may disrupt the endocrine system by mimicking or interfering with natural hormones, including estrogens. When absorbed into the body, these “xenoestrogens” can bind to estrogen receptors, potentially increasing estrogenic activity. Examples of these endocrine disruptors include PCBs, bisphenol-A (BPA), and phthalates. Men who were exposed to these EDCs experienced undescended testicles, poor semen quality, lower testosterone levels, and/or testicular cancer.
- Alcohol consumption – Frequent alcohol consumption can contribute to estrogen dominance by impairing liver function, increasing abdominal fat, and disrupting testosterone production. Alcohol consumption, especially in large amounts (more than 15 drinks a week), contributes to poor testicular function and hormonal imbalance by interfering with their ability to synthesize testosterone.  In fact, testosterone levels can drop about 30 minutes after a man drinks alcohol.  One study revealed that men who were given a pint of whiskey per day for 30 days had testosterone levels comparable to men with chronic alcoholism. 
- Food allergies – Healthy foods can act like toxins if you’re allergic to them. Continuing to eat foods that you’re allergic to can lead to chronic inflammation and hormonal imbalance. 
- Gut dysbiosis – Intestinal dysbiosis (imbalanced gut bacteria) may also contribute to estrogen dominance. Overgrowth of certain gut bacteria increases an enzyme called beta-glucuronidase. When this happens, estrogens recirculate instead of being eliminated. The result can be estrogen dominance and associated conditions like Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and low testosterone levels. 
Traumas and toxins are made worse by negative thought patterns and emotional stress.
Thoughts (Emotional Stressors)
Don’t underestimate the power of your thoughts! Emotional stress is just as powerful (or more powerful) than physical and biochemical stressors in triggering inflammation and imbalance. When the stress hormone cortisol goes up, testosterone is converted into estrogens, resulting in hypogonadism (Low-T). 
Emotional stress can come from the following:
- Relationship issues – Relationships can turn toxic, leading to chronic stress. Prolonged stress can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which can, in turn, affect hormone levels, including testosterone levels in males. 
- Financial stress – Financial struggles can lead to a hormonal imbalance due to the long-term effects of stress and cortisol.
- Watching the news – The mainstream media rarely focuses on the positive. Regularly exposing yourself to bad news increases fear, worry, and overall stress.
- Feeling overwhelmed – Stress from significant life changes, like a recent marriage, a new baby, graduation, a divorce, or even moving to a new city, can lead to high cortisol, testicle malfunctions, and lowered testosterone levels.
- Holding a grudge/pent-up anger – Holding a grudge creates stress in the body. Chronic stress may show up as inflammation, weight gain, and hormonal imbalance.
- Grief/feelings of loss – Grief is another form of stress that may create imbalances in the body.
The cumulative effect of these traumas, toxins, and thoughts can create inflammation and increase the risk of dis-ease anywhere in the body.
The Wellness Way Approach to Low-T
At The Wellness Way, we dig deeper to solve the health challenges others can’t. We don’t just address symptoms; we run tests to find out what’s going on behind the scenes.
Essential Tests for Assessing Your Inflammation Levels and Hormone Health
- Food Allergy Test: Immuno Food Allergy Test
- Male Panel: Male Panel
- Blood Sugar and Cardiovascular Health Test: Cardiometabolic Panel
- DUTCH Test: DUTCH Complete Hormone Panel
- Gut Health Test: Genova GI Effects with Parasitology
Your Wellness Way practitioner will order more tests based on what he or she considers most relevant based on your health history.
Dietary Changes for Men with Low Testosterone Levels
First, focus on lowering inflammation in the body. That means avoiding food allergies and following a personalized nutrition program, as the Wellness Way practitioner recommends. Here are some general dietary guidelines for men with lower levels of testosterone:
- Avoid cow’s milk dairy products – Goat and sheep’s milk products may be better tolerated – and even beneficial for lowering inflammation in the gut, which makes up a large part of the inflammatory response. 
- Avoid high omega-6 vegetable oils, like corn, canola, soybean, cottonseed oil, sunflower, grapeseed, and others, which can alter the omega-6 to omega-3 balance to be more inflammatory. 
- Gluten-free, mostly grain-free – Gluten is known to aggravate the gut lining, contributing to chronic inflammation in the gut and throughout the body.
- Consume an overall low carbohydrate, non-inflammatory diet of organic whole foods, which supply nutrients, antioxidants, and food for a healthy gut microbiome. A waist circumference greater than 40 inches lowers testosterone and continues increasing abdominal fat. 
- No sugar or processed foods – Both increase inflammation and cortisol. They can also lead to gut dysbiosis, potentially causing estrogens to go up by increasing beta-glucuronidase. Studies have found that low testosterone in men can be linked to metabolic syndrome, caused by insulin resistance. 
- Eat omega-3-rich foods – Wild-caught salmon, herring, sardines, walnuts, and ground flaxseeds provide omega-3s and help lower inflammation. 
- Follow a Personalized Nutrition Program based on your food allergy test results.
- Embrace healthy fats – Testosterone levels were lower for men on low-fat diets compared to men consuming healthy fats, such as almonds, olive oil, and avocados. 
- Add specific nutrient-dense foods: Add Liver/organ meats, sauerkraut, and microgreens for enhanced nutrition. Liver is nature’s multivitamin, according to Dr. Patrick Flynn.
- Focus on antioxidants – Including things like turmeric, green tea, berries, dark chocolate, and other botanicals high in polyphenols support the gut and keep inflammation under control. 
- Avoid Phytic Acid – Phytic Acid prevents minerals from being absorbed by the body and is very common in grains such as rice and pasta. Phytic Acid also depletes zinc, which is crucial to testosterone production. 
- Eat foods rich in natural Zinc – Zinc is a crucial mineral used in testosterone production and the production of all major hormones.  Oysters, lamb, beef (steak), pumpkin seeds, crab, cheese, almonds, oats, lobster, muesli, and chickpeas are excellent sources of zinc: Six oysters alone have 52 milligrams of zinc!
A healthy diet can reduce inflammation, but supplements can support gut healing and hormone balance.
Supplements to Support Men with Low Testosterone
A healthy diet reduces inflammation, but natural remedies like herbs and supplements can support proper hormone levels. Here are some herbs and supplements that may balance testosterone levels and bring you closer to hormone balance:
- Male Glandular – The Male Glandular consists of desiccated testes, prostate, heart, and liver from pasture-raised, New Zealand animals to help support male vitality.
- Tribulus – Supports sexual function and serves as an aphrodisiac for men through its support of DHEA conversion in the body.  
- Wellness Zinc – Zinc is a crucial mineral for many physiological functions and is commonly deficient.  Wellness Zinc supplies the best whole food form of zinc, 100% pure oyster powder.
- DIM (Diindolylmethane) – DIM is a compound derived from cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and cabbage. In studies, DIM reduces circulating estrogen, potentially lowering the risk of developing estrogen dominance. 
- Calcium D-Glucarate – Supplementing with calcium-D-glucarate has been shown to inhibit beta-glucuronidase produced by bacterial overgrowth, which can manage hormone levels. Vitamin D can support testosterone levels, especially if you do not often have the benefits of direct sunlight exposure. 
- Wellness Greens– Sulforaphane, a compound present in cruciferous vegetables like kale and Brussels sprouts, is helpful for supporting the liver and reducing estrogen dominance. Sulforaphane can also support sperm quality, antioxidant levels, and testosterone levels. 
- Dandelion Root – Dandelion root promotes liver detoxification, helping it more efficiently break down estrogen byproducts and remove them from the system. 
- Relax Magnesium Supplement – In men with low magnesium levels and low testosterone levels, a magnesium supplement could support testosterone production. 
- Wellness B Complex– The B-complex vitamins, especially vitamin B6, may also support optimal health and functioning of many systems and biochemical reactions in the body, including energy production, brain, liver, and nerve cell function, and muscle tone within the GI tract.
- Nettle Root – Nettle root may support free testosterone levels by preventing the binding of testosterone, used most often to relieve benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms. 
- Gallbladder Complex – The Wellness Way Gallbladder Complex has ox bile, artichoke, and beet, which help promote bile availability and movement. Optimizing bile production and flow can help the body remove excess estrogens in men with lower testosterone levels and can support fat digestion. 
- DHEA – As a precursor to testosterone, DHEA is a potent steroid hormone that is naturally produced by the adrenal cortex. In certain circumstances, direct DHEA supplementation is recommended following proper diagnostic testing. 
- Fish or krill oil – Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish and krill may help lower inflammation in the body. 
Each person is different – herbal remedies that work for one individual may not be effective for another. Part of that reason is due to body chemistry, including genetics and allergenic responses. However, there could be differences in the contributing factors to lowered testosterone levels and hormonal imbalance.
Lifestyle Changes & Complementary Therapies for Low-T
- Regular chiropractic care – If your posture is poor and your nervous system is affected, it can create stress and inflammation, affecting hormone balance.
- Physical Activity – Focus your exercise regimen on heavy weightlifting and high-intensity training rather than cardio, ensuring adequate recovery time in between. Testosterone levels in men increase significantly shortly after heavy resistance exercise. 
- Maintain a Healthy Weight – Achieving a healthy weight has contributed to an improvement in testosterone levels. 
- Sleep – Sleep deprivation contributes to a circadian misalignment and cortisol imbalance, which can lead to several health issues, including weight gain and a decrease in testosterone levels. 
Be a well-informed patient! Here are some resources for learning more about men’s health and natural ways to boost testosterone levels:
Educational Resources for Low Testosterone in Men
Videos & Webinars Related to Low Testosterone in Men
Articles to Support Men with Low Testosterone
When the Big T Isn’t – Low Testosterone
Hidden Hormone Hustler: What’s Stealing Hormonal Balance?
We’re Talking About It: Sperm and Fertility
Saw Palmetto: An Essential Herb for Maintaining Male Vitality
Erectile Dysfunction – Having the Hard Conversations
CONNECT WITH US
We invite you to connect with us! Find an event at a clinic near you! Follow us on social media. Tune in to A Different Perspective each Saturday morning LIVE to get cutting-edge training directly from Dr. Patrick Flynn. Please set up a no-obligation health consult with one of our doctors today. The best is yet to come! Think differently – and THRIVE. To learn how best to overcome low testosterone levels and other chronic complaints, contact a Wellness Way clinic today.
- Testosterone, Mood, Behaviour and Quality of Life – PMC (nih.gov).
- Testosterone Information | Mount Sinai – New York
- Testosterone Testing Information | Mount Sinai – New York
- Laboratory testing improves diagnosis and treatment outcomes in primary health care facilities | Carter | African Journal of Laboratory Medicine (ajlmonline.org)
- Male hypogonadism – Diagnosis & treatment – Mayo Clinic
- Salivary and Serum Concentrations of Cortisol and Testosterone at Rest and in Response to Intense Exercise in Boys Versus Men in: Pediatric Exercise Science Volume 32 Issue 2 (2019)
- Testosterone therapy: Potential benefits and risks as you age – Mayo Clinic
- Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Prostate Risks: Where’s the Beef? – PMC (nih.gov).
- Testosterone and sexual function in men – PubMed (nih.gov)
- Testosterone levels show steady decrease among young US men (urologytimes.com)
- Johns Hopkins Urology – Erectile Dysfunction and Low Testosterone Offer Gateway to Men’s Health (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Therapeutic Effects of Quercetin Against Bisphenol A Induced Testicular Damage in Male Sprague Dawley Rats – (Syst Biol Reprod Med).
- Obesity, estrogens and adipose tissue dysfunction – implications for pulmonary arterial hypertension – Kirsty M. Mair, Rosemary Gaw, Margaret R. MacLean, 2020.
- Endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effects on the reproductive health in men – PubMed (nih.gov)
- Low free testosterone concentration as a potentially treatable cause of depressive symptoms in older men – PubMed (nih.gov)
- Substance Abuse and Male Hypogonadism – PMC (nih.gov)
- JCM | Free Full-Text | Substance Abuse and Male Hypogonadism (mdpi.com)
- Food Allergies: The Basics – PMC (nih.gov)
- Correlation Between Gut Microbiota and Testosterone in Male Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus – PMC (nih.gov)
- Testosterone and Behavior – PMC (nih.gov).
- Depression in Aging Men: The Role of Testosterone – PMC (nih.gov).
- Reviewing the Benefits of Grazing/Browsing Semiarid Rangeland Feed Resources and the Transference of Bioactivity and Pro-Healthy Properties to Goat Milk and Cheese: Obesity, Insulin Resistance, Inflammation and Hepatic Steatosis Prevention – PMC (noh.gov).
- The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids – PMC (nih.gov).
- Diet and Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin – PMC (nih.gov).
- The Effects of Polyphenols and Other Bioactives on Human Health – PMC (nih.gov).
- Relationships Between Types of Fat Consumed and Serum Estrogen and Androgen Concentrations in Japanese Men – PMC (nih.gov).
- Low-fat Diets and Testosterone in Men: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Intervention Studies – PMC (nih.gov).
- Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus) – PMC (nih.gov).
- The Influence of the Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Parameters of the Functional Preparedness and Athletes’ Organism Homeostasis – PMC (nih.gov).
- Sexual Effects of Puncturevine (Tribulus Terrestris) Extract (Protodioscin): an Evaluation Using a Rat Model – PMC (nih.gov).
- Zinc Status and Serum Testosterone Levels of Healthy Adults – PMC (nih.gov).
- Sulforaphane Prevents Testicular Damage in Kunming Mice Exposed to Cadmium via Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways – PMC (nih.gov).
- Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Testosterone Levels in Men – PMC (nih.gov).
- Coadministrating Luteolin Minimizes the Side Effects of the Aromatase Inhibitor Letrozole – PMI (nih.gov).
- Improvement of Andropause Symptoms by Dandelion and Rooibos Extract Complex CRS-10 in Aging Male – PMI (nih.gov).
- The Interplay between Magnesium and Testosterone in Modulating Physical Function in Men – PMC (nih.gov).
- A Comprehensive Review on the Stinging Nettle Effect and Efficacy Profiles. Part II: Urticae Radix – PMC (nih.gov).
- Sepkovic DW, Bradlow HL, Bell M. Quantitative determination of 3,3′-diindolylmethane in urine of individuals receiving indole-3-carbinol. – (Nutr Cancer.)
- Short-term Dehydroepiandrosterone Treatment Increases Platelet cGMP Production in Elderly Male Subjects – PMC (nih.gov).
- Relationships Between Types of Fat Consumed and Serum Estrogen and Androgen Concentrations in Japanese Men -Nutr Cancer (nih.gov).
- Testosterone Physiology in Resistance Exercise and Training: the Up-Stream Regulatory Elements – PMC (nih.gov).
- Testosterone Status Following Short‐Term, Severe Energy Deficit is Associated With Fat‐Free Mass Loss in U.S. Marines – PMC (nih.gov).
- Testosterone Physiology in Resistance Exercise and Training: The Up-Stream Regulatory Elements – PMC (nih.gov)
- Sleep, Testosterone and Cortisol Balance, and Ageing Men – PMC (nih.gov).