Research Smallpox

Smallpox Studies

Accidental vaccinia of the vulva.

“Vaccinia of the vulva in a 32-year-old married woman is described. The vaccination was apparently due to a heteroinoculation from her husband during sexual contact. Clinically it presented as an indurated ulcer with a few isolated umbilicated vesicles and was associated with an acute biological false-positive serological reactions.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Accidental vaccinia vulva vaginitis.

“A thirty year old woman in whom an uncommon complication of smallpox vaccination developed is presented herein. In this case, virus was transmitted from the recently vaccinated child to the vulva and the vagina of the incompletely immune mother. The diagnosis was confirmed by a viral culture and a direct smear.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Basal-cell epithelioma occurring in a smallpox vaccination scar.

“A patient with basal-cell epithelioma occurring in a smallpox vaccination site is reported. The association is probably not a chance occurrence.”
#Cancer #Smallpox #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

[Basocellular carcinoma in a smallpox vaccination scar].

“A 52 year old housewife was vaccinated against smallpox at the age of 18, on her right deltoid area. At the age of 50 she noticed erythema and scaling on the vaccination scar and 2 years later a nodule appear that enlarged during the following 3 months. There was no history nor skin changes suggestive of significant sun exposure. The histological examination of an initial biopsy and of the subsequently excised lesion revealed a basal cell carcinoma of the solid type.”
#Cancer #Smallpox #Vaccine

[Cancer on a smallpox vaccination scar].

“A 52 year old housewife was vaccinated against smallpox at the age of 18, on her right deltoid area. At the age of 50 she noticed erythema and scaling on the vaccination scar and 2 years later a nodule appear that enlarged during the following 3 months. There was no history nor skin changes suggestive of significant sun exposure. The histological examination of an initial biopsy and of the subsequently excised lesion revealed a basal cell carcinoma of the solid type.”
#Cancer #Smallpox #Dermatological

A case of tuberculoid leprosy-following small pox vaccination.

No abstract available
PMID 3843333
#Leprosy #Smallpox #Vaccine

Case report: Chest pain in service members following smallpox vaccination.

No abstract available
PMID 22452714
#Cardiovascular #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Characterisation of poxviruses from sporadic human infections.

“An orthopoxvirus was isolated from the vesicular rash of a man in Natal who died in coma and who had not been vaccinated. Analysis of the viral DNA showed that it was a vaccinia virus, more closely related to the virus of South African smallpox vaccine than to other vaccinia viruses.”
“Minor biological differences between the viruses isolated and the corresponding vaccine strains suggested that some natural transmission of the virus had occurred, but the results of DNA analysis implied that they originated from the use of smallpox vaccine.”
#Shedding #Death #Smallpox #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Chest pain, ST elevation, and positive cardiac enzymes in an austere environment: differentiating smallpox vaccination-mediated myocarditis and acute coronary syndrome in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

#Cardiovascular #Smallpox #Myocarditis #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Conjugal transfer vaccinia.

“Two cases of conjugal contact transfer vaccinia are described. Each patient had intimate contact after their respective partners, active-duty military personnel, received the smallpox vaccination.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Contact transmission of vaccinia virus from smallpox vaccinees in the United States, 2003-2011.

“The vaccine contains live vaccinia virus that can be transferred through physical contact.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Contact vaccinia from recently vaccinated British soldiers.

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Continuing mortality and morbidity from smallpox vaccination.

“Three cases of cross-infection after smallpox vaccination are described, in two of which the outcome was fatal.”
Note: The military and some hospital workers still get vaccinated for this in the U.S.
#Death #Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Detection of Vaccinia DNA in the Blood Following Smallpox Vaccination

“To the Editor: Routine administration of the smallpox vaccine ended in the United States in 1972. With the reinitiation of the US smallpox vaccination program in 2002, the risk of transmission of vaccinia virus from a recently vaccinated person to a susceptible host is a concern. Secondary transmission is biologically plausible because of evidence of viral persistence in vaccinees. Vaccinia virus has been cultured from the oropharynx of vaccine recipients with a normal course following vaccination.1 In the 1960s and 1970s, it was isolated from the blood and urine of a limited number of vaccine recipients who had complications following vaccination.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine

Eczema vaccinatum resulting from the transmission of vaccinia virus from a smallpox vaccinee: an investigation of potential fomites in the home environment.

“On March 3, 2007, a 2-year-old boy was hospitalized with eczema vaccinatum. His two siblings, one with eczema, were subsequently removed from the home. Swabs of household items obtained on March 13th were analyzed for orthopoxvirus DNA signatures with real-time PCR. Virus culture was attempted on positive specimens. Eight of 25 household samples were positive by PCR for orthopoxvirus; of these, three yielded viable vaccinia virus in culture. Both siblings were found to have serologic evidence of orthopoxvirus exposure.”
#Shedding #Eczema #Smallpox #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine.

“Together, the data suggested that CTGV may have derived from VV-IOC by persisting in an indigenous animal(s), accumulating polymorphisms, and now emerging in cattle and milkers as CTGV. CTGV may represent the first case of long-term persistence of vaccinia in the New World.”
#Shedding #Smallpox

[An epidemic of vulvar vaccinia caused by catheterization].

No abstract available
PMID 13144592
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

A family outbreak of oral accidental vaccinia.

“Accidental vaccinia may occur either in a recently vaccinated person through autoinoculation by vesicular fluid or in a person who is in close personal contact with a recently vaccinated person. Though oral lesions of accidental vaccinia are not uncommon, an outbreak of similar oral lesions in a family is unusual.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine

Frequency of vaccinia virus isolation on semipermeable versus nonocclusive dressings covering smallpox vaccination sites in hospital personnel.

“Compared with nonocclusive dressings, the semipermeable dressing reduced, but did not eliminate, the frequency with which vaccinia virus was cultured from the surface of the dressing.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

How Contagious Is Vaccinia?

“A report on vaccine-related deaths in the United States during the 1960s found that 12 of the 68 deaths occurred in unvaccinated persons exposed to recently vaccinated family members or friends, a finding that demonstrates the potential gravity of the problem.”
“Numerous reports have described the spread of vaccinia virus within families. The majority are in- stances of single transmission, usually from a re- cently vaccinated child to an unvaccinated younger sibling.22-25 However, two or more secondary cas- es have been reported in at least eight reports of family outbreaks published from 1931 to 198126-33 (Table 2). Many of the reports describe severe, some- times fatal eczema vaccinatum in the first family member with secondary disease and substantially milder local inoculation disease in the rest of the family.”
#Recently #Vaccinated #Shedding #Death #Smallpox #Eczema #Dermatological #Vaccine

Injection Site Lichenoid Dermatitis Following Pneumococcal Vaccination: Report and Review of Cutaneous Conditions Occurring at Vaccination Sites.

“Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common vaccination site-associated malignancies; however, melanoma and sarcomas (dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, fibrosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma) are also smallpox vaccine-related site neoplasms.”
#Dermatological #Cancer #Pneumococcal #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Inoculation indeterminate leprosy localised to a smallpox vaccination scar.

“A single, indeterminate leprosy lesion localised exclusively to a smallpox vaccination scar in a 32-year old Indian male is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. This is the second published report of a leprosy lesion occurring at the site of a smallpox vaccination.”
#Leprosy #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Inoculation leprosy subsequent to small-pox vaccination.

No abstract available
PMID 4926955
#Leprosy #Smallpox #Vaccine

Intimidation, coercion and resistance in the final stages of the South Asian Smallpox Eradication Campaign, 1973-1975.

#Corruption #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Jonathan Hutchinson on Vaccination Syphilis

“A century ago, even as today, the opponents of compulsory vaccination for smallpox argued that the complications of the procedure might be worse than the disease. One of the most resolute advocates of compulsory vaccination at the time was Jonathan Hutchinson, then a newly elected honorary member of the New York Dermatological society. Hutchinson made no secret of his contempt for the misguided zealots who supported the antivaccination movement. One may well imagine, therefore, how painful it must have been for him to report in detail his findings on the transmission of syphilis by arm-to-arm vaccination. Hutchinson met the problem with characteristic courage. How he did so is summarized in this article.”
#Syphilis #Contamination #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Localized accidental vaccinia of the vulva. Report of 3 cases and a review of the world literature.

No abstract available
PMID 13955695
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Long-lasting stability of Vaccinia virus strains in murine feces: implications for virus circulation and environmental maintenance.

#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Malignant Tumors as a Late Complication of Vaccination

“Four basal and one squamous cell carcinomas and a single instance of a malignant melanoma arising in vaccination scars have occurred in five southern California patients. Sun exposure on a previously scarred skin was the main etiological factor in the development of the basal and squamous cell tumors. Sun exposure was probably unimportant in the case of the melanoma because of the short time interval between vaccination and the development of the tumor.”
#Cancer #Smallpox #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Malignant tumors in smallpox vaccination scars: a report of 24 cases.

“A study of 24 patients with proved malignant tumors originating in smallpox vaccination scars is reported. Three different tumor types were foundamalignant melanomas, basal cell carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. There was no exposure to known chemical carcinogens. In most cases a primary vaccination site was involved. The period of time between the vaccination and appearance of the malignant tumor was highly variable. Twenty-three of the patients were from various regions of the United States and one from the Republic of South Africa. Two patients presented tumors in vaccination sites bilaterally.
The possible role of vaccinia virus in the present cases is unknown and difficult to conceive. However, it is suggested that additional clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory studies should be made to determine the role, if any, of vaccinia virus in the development of malignant tumors in man.”
#Cancer #Smallpox #Vaccine

Natural human infections with Vaccinia virus during bovine vaccinia outbreaks.

“Farmers, milkers and their close contacts developed lesions on the hands, forearms, legs and face accompanied by fever, headache, malaise, myalgia and axillary, inguinal and cervical lymphadenopathy.”
“…and 50% of smallpox-vaccinated individuals developed symptoms.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

[Participation of vaccinia virus in the pathogenesis of different clinical forms of postvaccinal complications. I. Frequency of vaccinia virus detection in the vaccinted who have usual and complicated reactions to vaccination].

#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Persistence of vaccinia at the site of smallpox vaccination.

#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Post-vaccination encephalomyelitis: literature review and illustrative case.

#ADEM #Neurological

Progressive vaccinia in a military smallpox vaccinee – United States, 2009.

“Progressive vaccinia (PV), previously known as vaccinia necrosum, vaccinia gangrenosum, or disseminated vaccinia, is a rare, often fatal adverse event after vaccination with smallpox vaccine, which is made from live vaccinia virus. During recent vaccination programs potential cases of PV were investigated, but none met standard case definitions. PV has not been confirmed to have occurred in the United States since 1987. On March 2, 2009, a U.S. Navy Hospital contacted the Poxvirus Program at CDC to report a possible case of PV in a male military smallpox vaccinee. The service member had been newly diagnosed with acute mylegenous leukemia M0 (AML M0). During evaluation for a chemotherapy-induced neutropenic fever, he was found to have an expanding and nonhealing painless vaccination site 6.5 weeks after receipt of smallpox vaccine.”
#Smallpox #Fatal #Vaccinia #Vaccine #Dermatological #MedScienceResearch

Reemergence of vaccinia virus during Zoonotic outbreak, Par State, Brazil.

“In 2010, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia that affected dairy cattle and rural workers in Par State, Brazil. Genetic analyses identified the virus as distinct from BeAn58058 vaccinia virus (identified in 1960s) and from smallpox vaccine virus strains. These findings suggest spread of autochthonous group 1 vaccinia virus in this region.”
#Shedding #Smallpox

A report of 2 cases of myopericarditis after Vaccinia virus (smallpox) immunization.

#Smallpox #Cardiovascular #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Response to smallpox vaccine in persons immunized in the distant past.

“Vaccinia-naive participants shed virus from the vaccination site 2 to 6 days longer and had significantly higher peak mean viral titers when compared with the non-naive participants (P =.002).”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine

Risk of Contact Vaccinia From Immunization Sites

“To the Editor: Dr Garde and and colleagues1stated that “The mechanism of transfer from the vaccinee to the spouse is uncertain.” They did not report, however, whether they asked about mouth-to-nipple contact from the vaccinee to the spouse. Oral shedding of virus could transmit the virus via direct mucosal contact.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Risk of vaccinia transfer to the hands of vaccinated persons after smallpox immunization.

“Transmission of vaccinia virus after smallpox vaccination is a concern. ”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Safety of live vaccinations on immunosuppressive therapy in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, solid organ transplantation or after bone-marrow transplantation – A systematic review of randomized trials, observational studies and case reports.

“However, some serious vaccine-related adverse events occurred. 32 participants developed an infection with the vaccine strain; in most cases the infection was mild. However, in two patients fatal infections were reported”
#Death #Vaccine #Failure

Secondary and tertiary transmission of vaccinia virus after sexual contact with a smallpox vaccinee-San Diego, California, 2012.

“On June 24, 2012, CDC notified Public Health Services, County of San Diego Health and Human Services Agency, of a suspected case of vaccinia virus infection transmitted by sexual contact. The case had been reported to CDC by an infectious disease specialist who had requested vaccinia immune globulin intravenous (VIGIV) (Cangene Corporation, Berwyn, Pennsylvania) for a patient with lesions suspicious for vaccinia. The patient reported two recent sexual contacts: one with a partner who recently had been vaccinated against smallpox and a later encounter with an unvaccinated partner. Infections resulting from secondary transmission of vaccinia virus from the smallpox vaccinee to the patient and subsequent tertiary transmission of the virus from the patient to the unvaccinated partner were confirmed by the County of San Diego Public Health Laboratory. The smallpox vaccine had been administered under the U.S. Department of Defense smallpox vaccination program. The vaccinee did not experience vaccine-associated complications; however, the secondary and tertiary patients were hospitalized and treated with VIGIV. No further transmission was known to have occurred. This report describes the epidemiology and clinical course of the secondary and tertiary cases and efforts to prevent further transmission to contacts.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Secondary and Tertiary Transfer of Vaccinia Virus Among U.S. Military Personnel

United States and Worldwide, 2002-2004

“Case 1. In early May 2003, a service member received his primary smallpox vaccination. Approximately 6-8 days after vaccination, he experienced a major reaction (i.e., an event that indicates a successful take; is characterized by a papule, vesicle, ulcer, or crusted lesion, surrounded by an area of induration; and usually results in a scar) (4). The vaccinee reported no substantial pruritus. He slept in the same bed as his wife and kept the vaccination site covered with bandages. After bathing, he reportedly dried the vaccination site with tissue, which he discarded into a trash receptacle. He also used separate towels to dry himself, rolled them so the area that dried his arm was inside, and placed them in a laundry container. His wife handled bed linen, soiled clothing, and towels; she reported that she did not see any obvious drainage on clothing or linen and had no direct contact with the vaccination site.
In mid-May, the wife had vesicular skin lesions on each breast near the areola but continued to breastfeed. Approximately 2 weeks later, she was examined at a local hospital, treated for mastitis, and continued to breastfeed. The same day, the infant had a vesicular lesion on the upper lip, followed by another lesion on the left cheek (5). Three days later, the infant was examined by a pediatrician, when another lesion was noted on her tongue. Because of possible early atopic dermatitis lesions on the infant’s cheeks, contact vaccinia infection with increased risk for eczema vaccinatum was considered. The infant was transferred to a military referral medical center for further evaluation. On examination, the infant had seborrheic dermatitis and no ocular involvement. Skin lesion specimens from the mother and infant tested positive for vaccinia by viral culture and PCR at the Alaska Health Department Laboratory and at Madigan Army Medical Center. Because both patients were stable clinically and the lesions were healing without risk for more serious complications, vaccinia immune globulin was not administered. Neither patient had systemic complications from the infection.
Case 2. In July 2003, a service member who had been vaccinated was wrestling with an unvaccinated service member at a military recreational function when the bandages covering the vaccination site fell off. The unvaccinated service member subsequently wrestled with another unvaccinated service member. Six days later, both unvaccinated service members had lesions on their forearms, neck, and face. Skin lesion specimens from both men tested positive for vaccinia virus by PCR and viral culture at Tripler Army Medical Center’s microbiology laboratory.”
#Recently #Vaccinated #Shedding #Breastfeeding #Smallpox #Dermatological #Vaccine

Secondary and tertiary transmission of vaccinia virus from US military service member. 2011.

“During February and March 2010, the New York State Department of Health investigated secondary and tertiary vaccinia contact transmission from a military vaccinee to 4 close contacts. Identification of these cases underscores the need for strict adherence to postvaccination infection control guidance to avoid transmission of the live virus.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Severe eczema vaccinatum in a household contact of a smallpox vaccinee.

“A 28-month-old child with refractory atopic dermatitis developed eczema vaccinatum after exposure to his father, a member of the US military who had recently received smallpox vaccine. The father had a history of inactive eczema but reportedly reacted normally to the vaccine. The child’s mother also developed contact vaccinia infection.”
#Shedding #Eczema #Smallpox #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Smallpox and smallpox vaccination: neurological implications.

#Neurological #Smallpox #Immune

[Smallpox and smallpox virus-200 years since the first vaccination in Norway].

“Cowpox was once a rare disease in cattle, but a total of 70,985 bovine cases were reported between 1889 and 1928. The source of infection was thought to be humans vaccinated against smallpox.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Veterinary #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000: Sites and duration of viral shedding and effect of povidone iodine on scarification site shedding and immune response.

“Autoinoculations and secondary and tertiary transmissions due to VACV shedding from the vaccination site continue to occur despite education of vaccinees on the risks of such infections. The objectives of this study were to investigate, in nave smallpox vaccinees, (a) whether the vaccination site can remain contagious after the scab separates and (b) whether the application of povidone iodine ointment (PIO) to the vaccination site inactivates VACV without affecting the immune response.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology position statement on donor suitability of recipients of smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus).

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

[Some diseases of the kidneys in children during the 1st year of life, following primary smallpox vaccination and administration of pertusis-diphtheria-tetanus vaccine].

Silina EM. Vopr Okhr Materin Det. 1968.
No abstract available
PMID 5730100
#Kidney #DTP #Smallpox #Vaccine

Spread of vaccinia virus through shaving during military training, Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX, June 2014.

“Adverse events following smallpox vaccination may occur in the vaccinee, in individuals who have contact with the vaccinee (i.e., secondary transmission), or in individuals who have contact with the vaccinee’s contact (i.e., tertiary transmission). In June 2014 at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, TX, two cases of inadvertent inoculation of vaccinia and one case of a non-viral reaction following vaccination occurred in the security forces training squadron. This includes the first reported case of shaving as the likely source of autoinoculation after contact transmission. This paper describes the diagnosis and treatment of these cases, the outbreak investigation, and steps taken to prevent future transmission.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

ST-246 inhibits in vivo poxvirus dissemination, virus shedding, and systemic disease manifestation.

“Here, we show that ST-246 treatment not only results in the significant inhibition of vaccinia virus dissemination from the site of inoculation to distal organs, such as the spleen and liver, but also reduces the viral load in organs targeted by the dissemination. In mice intranasally infected with vaccinia virus, virus shedding from the nasal and lung mucosa was significantly lower (approximately 22- and 528-fold, respectively) upon ST-246 treatment.”
“Second, by reducing virus shedding from those prophylactically immunized with a smallpox vaccine or harboring variola virus infection, ST-246 could reduce the risk of virus transmission to susceptible contacts.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine


No abstract available.
#Smallpox #Death #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Tertiary contact vaccinia in a breastfeeding infant. 2004.

“The vaccinee reported observing all of the standard precautions to avoid household spread. In mid May, his breastfeeding wife developed vesicles on both areolas. On May 29, their infant daughter developed a papule on her philtrum. Contact vaccinia was confirmed by positive polymerase chain reaction and culture for vaccinia of both the maternal and infant lesions. This is the first documented case of inadvertent contact vaccinia transmission from a mother to her infant through direct skin-to-skin and skin-to-mucous membrane contact while breastfeeding. The mechanism of transfer from the vaccinee to the spouse is uncertain. This report demonstrates that breastfeeding infants living in close contact with smallpox vaccinees are at potential risk for contact vaccinia, even if the vaccinee is not the breastfeeding mother, and highlights the need for special precautions to prevent secondary transfer to breastfeeding mothers.”
#Breastfeeding #Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine

Transmission of vaccinia virus and rationale for measures for prevention.

#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Transmission of vaccinia virus from vaccinated milkers to cattle.

“An infection of cattle by transmission of vaccinia virus from milkers vaccinated against small pox is reported. Six vaccinia virus strains could be isolated from the vaccinal lesions localized on the nipples of the udder. Serological reactions with samples collected from diseased cows demonstrated the presence of HAI antibodies and made evident their kinetics at a 2-week-interval.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Veterinary #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Transmission of vaccinia virus, possibly through sexual contact, to a woman at high risk for adverse complications.

“Severe adverse events, including eczema vaccinatum (EV), can result after smallpox vaccination. Persons at risk for EV include those with underlying dermatologic conditions, such as atopic dermatitis. We investigated a case of vaccinia infection, possibly acquired during sexual contact with a recently vaccinated military service member, in a female Maryland resident with atopic dermatitis. The U.S. Department of Defense’s Vaccine Healthcare Centers Network (VHCN) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) worked in conjunction with the patient’s physician and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH) to confirm the diagnosis, ensure treatment, and prevent further transmission. Specimens collected from the patient were tested at the DHMH laboratories and were positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction for nonvariola orthopoxvirus. Testing at the CDC verified the presence of vaccinia-specific DNA signatures. Continuing spread of the patient’s lesions led to the administration of vaccinia immune globulin and strict infection control measures to prevent tertiary transmission to vulnerable family members, also with atopic dermatitis. VHCN contacted the service member to reinforce vaccination site care and hygiene. This case underscores the importance of prevaccination education for those receiving the smallpox vaccine to protect contacts at risk for developing severe adverse reactions.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Eczema #Dermatological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Unintentional transfer of vaccinia virus associated with smallpox vaccines: ACAM2000() compared with Dryvax().

“We identified 309 reports for ACAM2000 with skin or ocular involvement, of which 93 were autoinoculation cases and 20 were contact transmission cases. The rate for reported cases of autoinoculation was 20.6 per 100,000 vaccinations and for contact transmission was 4.4 per 100,000 vaccinations. Eighteen contact transmission cases could be attributed to contact during a sporting activity (45%) or intimate contact (45%). Of the 113 unintentional transfer cases, 6 met the case definition for ocular vaccinia. The most common locations for all autoinoculation and contact cases were arm/elbow/shoulder (35/113; 31%) and face (24/113; 21%). Methods We reviewed 753 reports associated with smallpox in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System and CDC Poxvirus consultation log, reported from March 2008 to August 2010. Reports were classified into categories based upon standard case definitions.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Vaccination-induced syphilis and the Hbner malpractice litigation.

“Dr. Georg Hbner, the defendant, was accused of having initiated a small epidemic of syphilis by using the lymph of a syphilitic infant to vaccinate 13 infants.”
#Syphilis #Contamination #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

[Vaccine virus epidemic in man and cattle after revaccination of a milker].

No abstract available
PMID 5893957
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

[Vaccines, biotechnology and their connection with induced abortion].

“Diploid cells (WI-38, MRC-5) vaccines have their origin in induced abortions. Among these vaccines we fi nd the following: rubella, measles, mumps, rabies, polio, smallpox, hepatitis A, chickenpox, and herpes zoster. Nowadays, other abortion tainted vaccines cultivated on transformed cells (293, PER.C6) are in the pipeline: flu, Respiratory Syncytial and parainfluenza viruses, HIV, West Nile virus, Ebola, Marburg and Lassa, hepatitis B and C, foot and mouth disease, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, tuberculosis, anthrax, plague, tetanus and malaria. The same method is used for the production of monoclonal antibodies and other proteins, gene therapy and genomics. Technology enables us to develop the aforementioned products without resorting to induced abortion. Full disclosure of the cell origin in the labelling of vaccines and other products must be supported. There are vaccines from non-objectionable sources which should be made available to the public. When no alternative vaccines exist, ethical research must be promoted. Non-objectionable sources in the production of monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy and genomics must be encouraged. It is not be consistent to abstain from products originated in embryonic stem cells and at the same time approve of products obtained from induced abortions. It is of paramount importance to avoid that induced abortion technology seeps into every field of Medicine.”
#Abortion #Aborted #Fetal #Cells #MMR #Rubella #Measles #Mumps #Rabies #Polio #Smallpox #Hepatitis A #Chickenpox #Herpes #Zoster #Shingles

[Vaccinia genitalis].

No abstract available
PMID 7167906
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Vaccinia keratouveitis manifesting as a masquerade syndrome.

“A patient who used contact lenses and had a history of blunt trauma developed vaccinia keratouveitis after accidental ocular autoinoculation from a recent vaccination site. Corneal and conjunctival cultures were taken for bacteria, fungi, Acanthamoeba, and viruses. Viral-like cytopathic effects became evident in tissue culture within three days. Immunofluorescence studies were negative for varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, adenovirus, measles, mumps, parainfluenza, and influenza. Pox viral particles were identified in the infected tissue cultures by electron microscopy. The Hind III restriction endonuclease profile of the viral DNA isolate was similar to the Lister strain of vaccinia virus.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Eyes

Vaccinia of the vulva. A case report.

#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Vaccinia Virus in Household Environment during Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak, Brazil

“Human-to-human transmission has been suggested to have occurred in some bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil, and nosocomial infection has been reported Asia (2,8). Household transmission of VACV has also been described in the United States after contact with lesions of a smallpox vaccinee in the military (9)”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Vaccinia virus infection after sexual contact with a military smallpox vaccinee -Washington, 2010.

“On March 1, 2010, the Washington State Department of Health (WADOH) notified Public Health – Seattle & King County (PHSKC) of a suspected case of contact transmission of vaccinia virus from sexual contact with a member of the military who had been vaccinated against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infection after sexual contact has been reported previously (1-4). Despite the patient’s exposure history and clinical presentation, the diagnosis initially was not considered by the patient’s physician, who ordered laboratory testing for several common sexually transmitted infections. The patient was seen by a second physician and referred to an infectious disease specialist, who obtained a swab sample of a genital lesion for laboratory testing for vaccinia virus. Vaccinia virus was confirmed by the Washington State Public Health Laboratory (WAPHL) and the CDC Poxvirus Laboratory. The patient resided in a household with an immunosuppressed renal transplant recipient. Appropriate contact precautions were recommended to the patient. No additional cases of contact transmission were reported. This report describes the patient’s clinical course and the associated epidemiologic investigation. Health-care providers caring for U.S. military personnel or their contacts should consider vaccinia virus infection in the differential diagnosis of clinically compatible genital lesions. Contact precautions should be emphasized to all persons who are vaccinated, as well as their contacts with unexplained lesions that might represent vaccinia infection from contact transmission.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

[Vaccinia virus infection with eyelid and vulvar localization appearing after indirect contact with a recently vaccinated subject. Clinical and virological study].

No abstract available
PMID 4097683
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Eyes #Ophthalmological #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Vaccinia virus infections in martial arts gym, Maryland, USA, 2008.

“Vaccinia virus is an orthopoxvirus used in the live vaccine against smallpox. Vaccinia virus infections can be transmissible and can cause severe complications in those with weakened immune systems. We report on a cluster of 4 cases of vaccinia virus infection in Maryland, USA, likely acquired at a martial arts gym.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Vaccinia virus in postvaccinal encephalitis.

“Results of virological examination of 239 samples taken from 84 children with neurological complications after smallpox vaccination are described. In postvaccinal encephalitis, vaccinia virus was isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid and pharyngeal secretions of 23 out of 40 children (57.5%) as well as from autopsy specimens sampled between 10-35 days after vaccination. During the acute period of disease, virus was detected in 17 out of 31 (54.2%) cerebrospinal fluid specimens. In 3 postvaccinal encephalitis cases the virus was present in brain and in a case of encephalomyelitis-in the spinal cord. These results confirmed the participation of vaccinia virus in the pathogenesis of postvaccinal encephalitis. The pathogenicity of vaccinia virus may be manifested only under a changed reactivity of the vaccinated host.”
#Death #Shedding #Encephalitis

[Virus diseases of the external female genitals. 3. Innoculation vaccinia (localized accidental vaccinias, vaccinia vulvitis].

No abstract available
PMID 5518030
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Vulval vaccinia.

No abstract available
PMID 4821486
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Vulvar vaccinia infection after sexual contact with a military smallpox vaccinee-Alaska, 2006.

“On October 10, 2006, an otherwise healthy woman visited a public health clinic in Alaska after vaginal tears that she had first experienced 10 days before became increasingly painful. The patient reported having a new male sex partner during September 22-October 1, 2006. A viral swab specimen from a labial lesion of the woman was submitted to the Alaska State Virology Laboratory (ASVL) for viral culture. The viral isolate could not be identified initially and subsequently was sent to CDC on January 9, 2007, where the isolate was identified as a vaccine-strain vaccinia virus. After vaccinia was identified, investigators interviewed the woman more closely and learned that her new sex partner was a male U.S. military service member stationed at a local military base. Further investigation determined that the service member had been vaccinated for smallpox 3 days before beginning his relationship with the woman. This report describes the clinical evaluation of the woman and laboratory testing performed to identify the isolate. Health-care providers should be aware of the possibility of vaccinia infection in persons with clinically compatible genital lesions who have had recent contact with smallpox vaccinees.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Vulvar vaccinia infection after sexual contact with a smallpox vaccinee.

“The United States ceased generalized smallpox vaccination in 1972 but reinstated it in 2002 for military personnel and selected healthcare workers (first responders who may be investigating possible cases of smallpox or caring for patients in selected hospitals) after the 2001 bioterrorism attacks. Since reinstitution of the vaccine, reports of transmission of vaccinia virus through contact with military smallpox vaccinees have been published, including four cases of female genital infection. We report a subsequent case of vulvar vaccinia infection acquired during sexual contact with a military vaccinee.”
#Shedding #Smallpox #Genital #Sexual #Transmission #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch

Widespread eczema vaccinatum acquired by contacts. A report of an autopsy case

“A 4-month-old male infant predisposed to allergic dermatitis acquired wide-spread eczema vaccinatum by contacts with a recently vaccinated sibling. He died of acute purulent peritonitis following a perforation of multiple duodenal ulcers. Fluorescence immunocytochemical and electron microscopic studies on the skin lesions revealed the presence of viral antigens and numerous virus particles compatible morphologically with those of the mature form from the same batch of smallpox vaccine given to the sibling. A large number of virus particles in the developmental form were also predominantly scattered in the cytoplasm of cells at the stratum malpighii of the epidermis as well as in neutrophils and macrophages in the skin lesions. The virus isolation from the skin lesions was done by using the HeLa cells and the human embryonic lung fibroblasts. No abnormal laboratory data were noted in immunoglobulins. On the basis of atrophy of the thymus and other lymphatic tissues and an appearance of large pyroninophilic cells in association with blastoid transformation, the authors discussed a possible participation of the disturbance of cellular immunity secondary to the virus infection in the development of the disease.”
#Death #Shedding #Smallpox #Eczema #Vaccine #Dermatological

The XIX century smallpox prevention in Naples and the risk of transmission of human blood-related pathogens.

“Although Galbiati established the retro-vaccination (1803) and developed the “calf” lymph vaccine, recognized and implemented since 1864 as the optimal smallpox vaccine in the following hundred years, Naples general population was mainly vaccinated with “human” lymph from abandoned children until 1893. Mini-epidemics of syphilis and serum hepatitis were periodically reported as results of arm-to-arm procedure. The risk of transmission of blood-related pathogens was higher in Naples where >80% of abandoned children, used as repository of cowpox virus, were dying in their first year of life.”
#Contamination #Syphilis #Hepatitis #Smallpox #Death #Liver #Vaccine #MedScienceResearch